Socioeconomic Implications of Cereal Crop Production in Inland Thrace during the Late Iron Age (Dissertations. Volume 13)
Language: English with summary in Bulgarian


     The book explores the operation sequences of the production, processing, and storage of cereal crops in inland Thrace during the second half of the First Millennium BC. The investigation of agricultural tools and structures connected to cereal crop production, storage, and processing reveals not only the tradition in the employed implements but also the adoption of advanced techniques by the local Thracian communities. Ethnographic parallels as well as the available iconographic sources and literary references assist in the reconstruction of past farming practices and implements. The comprehensive analysis of the different stages involved in cereal crop production contributes to our understanding of the economic choices and social complexity of Thracian society.


Table of contents

Chapter I. Introduction

I.1. Territorial and chronological frames

I.2. The Late Iron Age background

I.3. Defining cereal crop production

I.4. History or research

Chapter II. Reconstructiong ancient farming practices

II.1. Archaeological record

II.2. Cereal crops and the palaeoenvironment

II.3. Literary and iconographic sources

II.4. Archaeobotanical studies

II.5. Ethnographic and experimental studies

II.6. Conclusion

Chaper III. Production of cereal crops

III.1. Cultivation techniques and tools

III.1.1. Ploughing

III.1.2. The use of a hoe

III.1.3. Sowing

III.1.4. Harvest

III.1.5. Threshing and winnowing

III.2. Organisation of cereal crop production in Thrace

III.2.1. Agricultural regime

III.2.2. Quantity of the produce

III.2.3. State and agriculture

III.3. Conclusion

Chapter IV. Storage of cereal crops

IV.1. Models of cereal crop storage

IV.1.1. Subterranean pits

IV.1.2. Storage containers and structures

IV.1.3. State of the stored produce

IV.2. Storage of cereal crops in Late Iron Age Thrace

IV.2.1. Subterranean pits and above-ground structures

IV.2.2. Pithoi

IV.2.3. Other storage containers

IV.3. Socioeconomic implications of storage practices in Late Iron Age Thrace

IV.4. Conclusion

Chapter V. Grain processing devices

V.1. Development of grinding technology

V.1.1. Prehistoric grinding stones

V.1.2. Olynthus mill and rotary quern

V.2. Olynthus mills from Thrace. Distribution and typology

V.2.1. Finds from settlements

V.2.2. Finds from burial and ritual context

V.2.3. Olynthus mills and ore processing

V.2.4. Surface finds

V.2.5. Typology

V.3. Provenance and trade of Olynthus mills

V.4. Conclusion

Chapter VI. Conclusions

VI.1. Summary

VI.2. Future research


Summary in Bulgarian

Appendix A. Cereal remains from Bulgaria  second half of the First Millennium BC

Appendix B. Documentary and iconographic sources

Appendix C. Catalogue of Olynthus mills



List of figures

Социални и икономически аспекти на производството на зърнени култури във вътрешна Тракия през късножелязната епоха

Publisher National institute of archaeology with museum (Bulgarian academy of sciences)
Language English with a summary in Bulgarian
Pages 538
Illustrations b/w figures, maps
Binding paperback
ISBN 978-954-9472-72-1
ISSN 2603-3097
Creation date 2019
Size 21 х 29 cm

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