Question mark shaped earrings from Medieval Danubian Bulgaria (13th14th century): On the material traces of Cumans and the Golden Horde in the culture of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom
Second revised and expanded edition. Language: Bulgarian with summaries in English, French, German and Russian. Category: Second Bulgarian Kingdom

Ohrringe in der Form einеs Fragezeichens aus dem bulgarischen Mittelalter. (13.14. Jh.): Über das materielle Erbe der Kumanen und der Goldene Horde in der Kultur Zweiten Bulgarischen Reiches

Des boucles d'oreilles en forme de point d'interrogation en provenance de la Bulgarie Médiévale (XIIIXIV s.): à propos des traces matérielles coumans et la Horde d'or dans la culture de Second royaume bulgare

Серьги в виде знака вопроса из средневековой Болгарии (XIIIХIV вв.). О материальных следах куманов и Золотой орды в культуре Второго болгарского царства


    The study is focused on Eastern influences and their physical agents in the culture of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom. Manifestations of such influences are often neglected at the expense of the hyper-interpreted Byzantization of the Balkan territories in 1314th century. Eastern influences are examined through the prism of a specific type of jewellery  so called question mark shaped earrings. The author considers theories for their origin and spread in the Middle Ages and endorses the idea of nomadic type of fashion, emerged in the culture of Asian nations of the Kimak-Kipchak circle and spread during their migrations. Subsequently this fashion flourished in the culture of the Golden Horde and acquires supra-ethnic character, emerging in the areas of influence of the nomadic empire as well. Medieval Bulgaria and the Balkans fall into this orbit in the second half of the 13th century. Over 70 question mark shaped earrings were traced, described and classified. They are spread mainly in North Bulgaria with a focus on north-eastern region widely inhabited in the Middle Ages by Cumans and a contact zone between the Golden Horde and the Second Bulgarian Kingdom in 14th century. Among the question mark shaped earrings prevail those made by silver, often with extra gold plating, followed by those made by bronze. Earrings made by gold are relatively rare and with limited area of spread. Scarce data on the place of discovery of the earrings shows their prevalence in children’s and women’s graves.


Table of contents


За настоящото издание

Темата за обеците с форма на въпросителен знак в научната литература

Произход и разпространение на обеците с форма на въпросителен знак

Обеците с форма на въпросителен знак в Източна и Централна Европа

Въпросовидните обеци на Балканите

Въпросовидните обеци по българските земи

Херменевтика на модата по нашите земи

Вместо заключение. За материалните следи от кумани и татари в културата на средновековна България



Резюме на руски език

Резюме на английски език

Резюме на френски език

Резюме на немски език

Обеци с форма на въпросителен знак от Средновековна България (XIII–XIV в.)

Publisher Unicart
Language Bulgarian with summaries in English, French, German and Russian
Pages 88
Illustrations b/w figures
Binding paperback
ISBN 978-954-01-3933-3
Creation date 2019
Size 16 х 24 cm

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