Arnold J. Toynbee. A Study of History. Volumes 1—2
Original title: Арнълд Тойнби. Изследване на историята
A Study of History is a multivolume history by the British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, published from 1934 to 1961. It received enormous popular attention. Toynbee's goal was to trace the development and decay of 19 or 21 world civilizations in the historical record, applying his model to each of these civilizations, detailing the stages through which they all pass: genesis, growth, time of troubles, universal state, and disintegration. The 19 major civilizations, as Toynbee sees them, are: Egyptian, Andean, Sumerian, Babylonic, Hittite, Minoan, Indic, Hindu, Syriac, Hellenic, Western, Orthodox Christian (two branches: the main or Byzantine body and the Russian branch), Far Eastern (two branches: the main or Chinese-Korean body and the Japanese branch), Islamic (two branches which later merged: Arabic and Iranic), Mayan, Mexican and Yucatec. Moreover, there are three "abortive civilizations" (Far Western Christian, Far Eastern Christian, Scandinavian) and five "arrested civilizations" (Polynesian, Eskimo, Nomadic, Ottoman and Spartan)...