The author analyses the symbolism and function of encolpion type of cross in medieval Bulgaria. She classifies crosses according to their medium, shape, elaboration, iconography and signs. Besides, she offers dating of the objects studied through a number of parallels between objects of art, numismatics and sphragistics. The scholar considers also the archaeological context of the finds. Further, she makes an overview of the technique of craftsmanship examining the material, technology, workshops, iconographic repertory, compositions, stylistic peculiarities, ornaments and inscriptions.


Table of contents /summary/


Introduction. History of the research. Aims and goals of the study

Chapter one. Cross  symbol and relics. Functions. Sources from the Bulgarian history

Chapter two. Classification and dates of the crosses-encolpions

1. Metal crosses

1.1. Double reliquary crosses

1.2. Cruciform caskets

1.3. Cassette crosses

1.4. Flat crosses

2. Crosses from clay

3. Crosses from bone

4. Crosses from glass

5. Crosses from stone

Chapter three. Materials, technologies, workshops

Chapter four. Iconographic repertoire, composition and style characteristics. Ornaments. Inscriptions


Index of the village names



Index of abbreviations




Средновековни кръстове – енколпиони от България (IX–XIV в.)

Publisher Prof. Marin Drinov Academic Publishing House
Language Bulgarian with a summary in English
Pages 758
Illustrations b/w and color figures, maps
Binding hardback
ISBN 978-954-322-385-5
Creation date 2011
Size 21 х 29 cm

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