Markers of Military Mobility: Toward an Archaeology of the Sling in Ancient Thrace (5th c. BC  4th c. AD) with a Corpus of the Inscribed Lead Sling Projectiles from Bulgaria (Excavations and Research, vol. 50) (Glandes plumbeae inscriptae in Bulgaria repertae)
Category: archaeologyweapons and warfare
Language: English
The present study aims to produce an archaeology of the sling as a weapon in ancient Thrace on the basis of archaeological data for its ammunition.
Table of contents

Preface and acknowledgements

I. Introduction. Scope, aims and methods

II. Historiography and previous scholarship

1. Sources and current trends in the studies of Thracian warfare

2. The treatment of the sling as a weapon in the Bulgarian historiography

3. The treatment of the sling as a weapon in the international historiography

3.1. General overviews and thematic surveys

3.2. Ballistic studies of sling projectiles and experimental archaeology

3.3. Type of trauma and forensic anthropology

3.4. Lead isotope analyses of sling projectiles

4. From private to museum collection

5. Excavation data and archaeological context

5.1. Sieges

5.2. Sanctuaries

5.3. Necropoleis

5.4. Battlefields and military camps

III. The sling as a weapon

1. Description

2. Materials

3. Other sling types

4. Throwing techniques

5. Sling ammunition

5.1. Stone projectiles

5.2. Terracotta projectiles

5.3. Lead projectiles

6. Leather bags

7. Molds and manufacturing techniques of lead projectiles

8. Range, accuracy and damage potential

9. The effectiveness of the slinger in warfare

10. Ancient perceptions about slingers

IV. Sling projectiles from Thrace: Building up a database

1. Stone projectiles

2. Terracotta projectiles

3. Lead projectiles

4. Glandes plumbeae inscriptae in Bulgaria repertae (No.133)

V. Converging narratives

1. Towards a “molydenology” of the Macedonian and the Roman expansion in Thrace during the Late Classical and Hellenistic periods

2. Petty cash matters. Excavation lifetime bronzes of Philip II and Alexander III and the logistics of their armies in Thrace

2.1. Coin hoards vs. excavation coins: the case of inland Thrace

2.2. Coins of Philip II and Alexander III

2.3. Coins of Alexander III

3. Biting the bullet: The impact of sling projectiles on body armor from Classical and Hellenistic Thrace

3.1. Battle damage on helmets from Thrace

3.1.1. The Phrygian (Thracian) helmet from Sashova tumulus

3.1.2. The Chalcidian helmet from Dalakova tumulus

3.2. Technical considerations

3.3. Historical implications

VI. Concluding remarks and ways forward

Catalogue (text and plates)



List of ancient authors

Резюме на български език

Index of people named on lead projectiles

Index of symbols and monograms on lead projectiles and coins

Geographic index


Publisher National institute of archaeology with museum (Bulgarian academy of sciences)
Language English with a summary in Bulgarian
Pages 260
Illustrations b/w and color figures
Binding hardback
ISBN 978-619-245-385-5
ISSN 0205-0722
Creation date 2023
Size 21 х 29 cm

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