"The Secret": Ivan Valkov as an Officer, Conspirator, Statesman, Diplomat
„Тайният“: Иван Вълков като офицер, конспиратор, държавник, дипломат
Category: Bulgaria during the Interwar period
Ivan Valkov (1875—1962) was a Bulgarian General of Infantry who fought in World War I and later held the post of Minister of War (1923—1929). In 1919 he was one of the founders, and in 1920—1928 was the chairman of the Military Union, an officers' organization. As its head, Valkov took part in the Bulgarian coup d'état of 9 June 1923, in which they overthrew prime minister Aleksandar Stamboliyski. From 10 June 1923 until 11 January 1929, Valkov was the Minister of War in the governments of prime ministers Aleksandar Tsankov and Andrey Lyapchev. He oversaw the repression of leftist organizations after the September Rebellion in 1923 and the assassination attempt on Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria two years later. Valkov was also one of the founders of a military factor in Kazanlak.
In October 1925, at the time of the Greco-Bulgarian conflict in the Petrich district, General Valkov used diplomatic rather than military means to restore the status-quo. He gave the order to not open fire and appealed to the League of Nations for support. As a result, Greece was recognized as the aggressor and was forced to pay Bulgaria compensation for casualties and damage. The results of the conflict are regarded as a success of Bulgarian diplomacy.
In the second half of the 1920s, Valkov was accused of backing Ivan Mihailov and his faction of the internal conflict within the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization. His actions were criticized by former Prime Minister Aleksandar Tsankov and the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Atanas Burov, but Valkov received support from Boris III at the time. It was because of this that the general remained in the government.
In 1928 Valkov declared the dissolution of the Military Union due to it being divided as a result of internal bickering and political differences. At a time when neogitations were underway regarding Bulgaria's representation in international organizations, the government demanded the Valkov resign because of his reputation of being an opponent of democracy. Prime Minister Lyapchev agreed to this, and Valkov was removed from his post as war minister.
In 1929—1934, he was the plenipotentiary minister of Bulgaria in Italy. Valkov played a key role at this time during negotiations to conclude a marriage between Boris III and the Princess Giovanna of Italy, daughter of King Victor Emmanuel III. After pro-Soviet and communist forces rose to power as a result of the Bulgarian coup d'état of 1944, he was arrested on 17 June 1946. He remained in prison for years before being sentenced to death in 1954 for his use of terror against the far left opposition in April 1925. However, Valkov's sentence was changed to 20 years in prison due to his old age.
Table of contents
Първа глава. Военна и обществена дейност на Иван Вълков до Деветоюнския преврат от 1923 г.
1. Ранна биография, военно образование и преподавателска дейност (1876—1912)
2. Участие в Балканските войни (1912—1913)
3. По бойните полета на Македония (1915—1918)
4. Директор на Държавния географски институт (1919—1923)
Втора глава. Иван Вълков и обществено-политическото развитие на България в периода 1923—1944 г.
1. Конспиратор и държавник (1919—1929)
2. Строител на българската армия (1923—1929)
2.3. Дипломат (1929 —1934)
2.4. Общественик (1934—1944)
Трета глава. Съдбата на Иван Вълков в периода на държавния социализъм
3.1. Предаден от свои (1946)
3.2.Съдебният процес (1954)
3.3. Играта с истината (1954—1989)
3.4. Последни години (1954—1962)