Metallurgy in Ancient Colchis. The case from Guria, West Georgia
Language: English


Table of contents


1. Introduction

1.1. The Guria region and the earliest iron production

1.2. Current opinions

1.3. Aims of the Guria project “Ancient Colchis and the Origins of Iron”

1.4. Considerations

1.5. Aims of the present work

2. Archaeological background

2.1. The Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age in Georgia

2.2. Colchis and the Colchian culture: Archaeological parameters and chronology

2.3. Geological characteristics of the region: Natural resources

2.4. The iron ore

2.5. The Guria metallurgical sites

2.6. Preceding absolute dating of the sites 

3. Scientific methods

3.1. Preliminary visual examination

3.2. Chemical analysis

3.2.1. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF): Analysis of slag

3.2.2. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

3.2.3. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX)

Sample Preparation

Backscatter images and chemical analyses

3.3. Optical thin-section microscopy: Petrographic analysis

3.3.1 Initial binocular microscopy and low-power stereoscopic microscopy

3.3.2. Polarising microscopy: Thin-section analysis

3.4. Optically stimulated luminescence dating

3.4.1. The choice of dating technique: argumentation

3.4.2. Principle of the technique and selection of dating samples

3.4.3. Sample preparation

4. Results

4.1. Initial visual analysis

4.1.1. Slag

4.1.2. Furnace lining

4.1.3. Tuyères


Surface and inclusions

4.1.4. Pottery

4.2. Chemical analyses

4.2.1. X-ray fluorescence


Furnace lining


4.2.2. Scanning electron microscopy

Specific inclusions

Clay matrix: Area analysis

4.2.3. ICP-MS chemical analysis of tuyère samples

4.3. Petrography

4.3.1 Low-power binocular microscopy: General observations

4.3.2. Mineralogy studied by thin-sections microscopy

4.4. Optically stimulated luminescence dating

5. Discussion

5.1. What kind of metallurgy is represented in the Supsa-Gubazeuli “iron-smelting centre”?

5.1.1. Do the materials result from ferrous production?

5.1.2. Copper and copper-alloy metallurgy

5.1.3. Zinc/Brass production

5.1.4. Metallurgy at individual sites

5.2. Characteristics of the materials in relation to the expected chronological position

5.2.1. The construction of the furnaces: Complexity

5.2.2. Advanced technology: Specialisation and standardisation

5.3. Chronological position of Gurian finds and sites

5.3.1. The contribution of the Luminescence dating

5.3.2. Other evidence

6. Conclusion 



Publisher St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Turnovo
Language English
Pages 164
Illustrations b/w and color figures, maps
Binding paperback
ISBN 978-619-208-174-4
Creation date 2018
Size 16 х 24 cm

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