Early Byzantine Fortresses in Bulgaria and its neighbouring territories (In the Dioceses of Thracia and Dacia) (Excavations and Research, vol. 35)
Ранновизантийските крепости в България и съседните земи
Language: Bulgarian with an extended summary in English
Category: Late Antiquity


     In the Early Byzantine Period there is a large number of sites in the dioceses of Thracia and Dacia that in contemporary sources are referred to as castellа, φρούρια, όχυρώματα, i.e. fortresses, fortified areas. Today local inhabitants call their remains “cetăţi”, “gradishta”, “gradini”, “kaleta”, “hisari”  terms of Romanian, Slavic or Turkish origin with the same meaning. These fortresses are the subject of the current research. The study does not cover the city and the city-type centers that in the sources are referred to as civitates, πόλεις, etc.


Table of contents


І. The Fortified Settlements

І.1. Distribution, classification, location

І.2. Public buildings of the fortified settlements

I.3. The household buildings of the fortified settlements

І.4. Conclusion

ІІ. The Military fortresses

ІІ.1. Known military fortresses

ІІ.2. Generalization

ІІ.3. The military doctrine of the Empire for the defence of the Balkans during the Early Byzantine Period

ІІІ. Other types of fortresses

ІІІ.1. Fortified shelters

ІІІ.2. Fortified Christian sites

ІІІ.3. Fortified estate centres




Appendix I. Data about the fortresses

Appendix II. Maps and plans


List of figures



Publisher National institute of archaeology with museum (Bulgarian academy of sciences)
Language Bulgarian with summary in English
Pages 140
Illustrations b/w figures, maps
Binding paperback
ISSN 0205-0722
Creation date 2006
Size 21 х 29 cm

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