Metal and metalworking in the Bronze Age tell settlements from the Carpathian Basin
Category: Bronze Age
Language: English


   This volume is a revised version of a doctoral dissertation concerning metal production and consumption within Bronze Age tell settlements in the Carpathian Basin, an area roughly encompassing parts of present-day western Romania, Serbia (Vojvodina), southern Slovakia and eastern and central Hungary. The analysis is based on all available archaeological evidence related to metals and metalworking uncovered within tells, presented here for the first time in its entirety. One of the main objectives of this volume is to examine the scale, distribution and context of metal artefact manufacture and use by communities inhabiting these settlements. Moreover, this book offers a reassessment of the role metalworking played within the economy of Bronze Age tell sites in the Carpathian Basin and simultaneously outlines contacts with other metal production regions. The oft-encountered claim that tells functioned as metalworking centres of the Carpathian Basin is also re-examined through a comparative analysis of metal production indicators uncovered within tells and contemporary flat sites within the region. The results provide a much more nuanced picture of the scale, nature and distribution of metalworking as a craft in the Carpathian Basin during the Early and Middle Bronze Ages (c. 25001500 BC).


Table of contents



Chapter 1. Background to the study of metals and metalworking in the Bronze Age tell settlements of the Carpathian Basin

1. Geographical setting and the non-ferrous ores

1.1. Topography, hydrography and climate

1.2. Ore deposits in the Carpathian Basin

2. Cultural and chronological framework

2.1. Early and Middle Bronze Age groups in the Carpathian Basin

2.2. The relative chronological framework and absolute chronology

3. Bronze Age Tell Settlements in the Carpathian Basin: a brief overview

Chapter 2. Previous research: An overview

1. The early years

2. After World War II: the focus on typology

3. Approaches to metalworking in Bronze Age tells

4. Social interpretations

Chapter 3. The archaeological record

1. Find context: general assessments

2. Artefacts from the settlement layers

3. Metal hoards in Bronze Age tells

3.1. Find context

3.2. Structure and content

3.3. Possible interpretations

Chapter 4. Metalworking in Bronze Age tell settlements of the Carpathian Basin

1. Metalworking-related artefacts

1.1. Casting moulds

1.2. Tuyères

1.3. Casting cores

1.4. Casting debris and casting jets

1.5. Ingots and casting cakes

1.6. Crucibles

1.7. Other metalworking-related artefacts

2. Distribution and find context of metalworking-related artefacts

2.1. Distribution

2.2. Find context

3. Metalworking workshops in the Bronze Age tell settlements

Chapter 5. Typology and chronology of the metalwork discovered in the Bronze Age tell settlements

1. Tools and weapons

1.1 Axes

1.1.1. Flat axes

1.1.2. Flanged axes

1.1.3. Palstaves

1.1.4. Shaft-hole axes Hajdúsámson-type axes Monteoru-type axes Tószeg-type axes Axes with ridged half-sleeve (Nackenkammäxte)

1.1.5. Disc-butted axes

1.1.6. Shaft-tube axes (Schaftröhrenäxte)

1.2. Daggers

1.2.1. Daggers with tongue-shaped hilts (Griffzungendolche)

1.2.2. Daggers with hilt-plates (Griffplattendolche)

1.3. Chisels

1.3.1. Flat chisels

1.3.2. Socketed chisels

1.4. Sickles

1.5. Spearheads

1.6. Awls

1.7. Sewing needles

1.8. Halberds

1.9. Knives

2. Ornaments and dress accessories

2.1. Beads

2.2. Buttons/tutuli

2.3. Pendants

2.3.1. Spectacle spiral pendants (Brillenspiralen)

2.3.2. Kosziderpadlás-type pendants

2.3.3. Crescent-shaped pendants (Halbmondförmige Anhänger) Simple crescent-shaped pendants Crescent-shaped pendants with a spike-shaped central ornament

2.3.4. Moon-shaped pendants with central ornament

2.3.5. Heart-shaped pendants (Herzförmige Blechanhänger)

2.3.6. Anchor and swallowtail-shaped pendants

2.3.7. Disc-shaped pendants with concentric ribs (Kreisrippenanhänger, Stachelscheiben)

2.3.8. Disc-shaped pendants with crossed ribs (Kreuzrippenanhänger) “Horned” pendant with crossed-ribs

2.3.9. Horseshoe-shaped pendants (Hufeisenförmige Anhänger)

2.3.10. Funnel-shaped pendants (trichterförmige Anhänger)

2.3.11. Wheel-shaped pendants

2.4. Tubes made of rolled sheet or coiled wire

2.5. Rings

2.6. Pins

2.6.1. Cypriot knot-headed pins (Zyprische Schleifennadeln)

2.6.2. Roll-headed pins (Rollenkofpnadeln)

2.6.3. Hülsenkopfnadeln

2.6.4. Loop-headed pins (Schlaufennadeln)

2.6.5. Pins with obliquely perforated head (Nadeln mit schräg durchlochtem Kopf)

2.6.6. Sickle-shaped pins (Sichelnadeln)

2.6.7. Barca-type pins

2.6.8. Pins with perforated neck (Lochhalsnadeln)

2.7. Simple bracelets/Arm rings

2.8. Horizontally ribbed armlets (längsgerippte Armbände)

2.9. Spiral arm rings

2.10. Arm-guard spirals (Handschutzspiralen/Armschutzspiralen)

2.11. Belt buckles (Gürtelhacken/Gürtelschließen)

2.12. Sheet metal plaques

2.13. Discs

2.14. Neck rings, necklaces and diadems

Chapter 6. Tells in the context of Early and Middle Bronze Age metallurgy in the Carpathian Basin

1. Metalworking-related artefacts from the Carpathian Basin

1.1 Flat settlements

1.2. Graves

1.3. Hoards

1.4. Isolated finds and artefacts with an unknown find context

2. Distribution of metalworking-related artefacts in the Carpathian Basin

3. Tells  metalworking centres?

Concluding remarks: Metal and metalworking in Bronze Age tell settlements

Appendix 1. Catalogue of finished metal products and metalworking-related artefacts discovered in the Bronze Age tell settlements of the carpathian basin

Appendix 2. List of sites in the carpathian basin with evidence related to metalworking dating to the time period when the tells were occupied

Abbreviations and references



Publisher Editura Mega
Language English
Pages 376
Illustrations b/w and color figures, maps
Binding hardback
ISBN 978-606-543-662-6
Creation date 2015
Size 21 x 29 cm

Write a review

Your Name:

Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:

Panel Tool